9 DISCUSSIONS DUE IN 48 HOURSIntelligenceWould you consider yourself intelligent? How would you define intelligence? Measuring intelligence has been a part of the educational psychology discourse for many years. There are many ways to define and measure the intelligence of a person. You will be taking two different intelligence tests: an I.Q. test and a multiple intelligences test. Take the Free I.Q. Test (Links to an external site.) available at the IQ test for free website and the multiple intelligences test (Links to an external site.) available at the Literacy Works website. Using this experience along with the information from our reading assignment this week respond to the following questions:· How do these two different tests measure intelligence?· Which test do you think was more reflective of your intellectual ability? Why?· How do you feel about the practice of I.Q. testing?· In reviewing your results, what did you learn about I.Q. testing?· How does your experience connect with the information from the text on I.Q.?· Could I.Q. testing be used as a valid tool in the teaching-learning process? Why or why not?· Why are I.Q. tests problematic? Consider diverse student populations.Inclusion DebateInclusion continues to be a very heated debate as to whether it is beneficial for student learning; including those with and without disabilities. There is much research that supports and also opposes the practice of inclusion. Educational psychology provides us with the ability to examine inclusion based on the theories of learning and behavior and the continued research that aims to either validate or abandon this notion of inclusion.For this discussion, your instructor will divide you into two different debate groups based on support and opposition on the topic of inclusion. Read Chapter 4 to gain an understanding of how legislation mandates that, whenever possible, children with exceptionalities be educated in the mainstream education classroom with other students. You want to get a deep understanding of LRE (Least Restrictive Environment). Review the additional links to review the controversy over inclusion to assist in formulating your defense with support from the literature:· Center for Parent Information and Resources (n.d.). School inclusion. (Links to an external site.) Retrieved from http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/inclusion/· Kids Together, Inc. (n.d.). What is inclusion? (Links to an external site.) Retrieved from http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion.htm· Thompkins, R. & Deloney, P. (1995). Inclusion: The pros and cons (Links to an external site.). Issues..about Change, 4(3). Retrieved from http://www.sedl.org/change/issues/issues43.htmlFeel free to read additional texts about the topic and be sure to cite.Based on your assigned position, formulate a defense statement that includes the following:1. What is inclusion and how does the legislative mandate of IDEIA (Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, formerly known as IDEA – Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) support its efforts.2. Based on your research, provide at least three reasons for your position that is supported by the texts. You also want to provide solid examples to support each reason.Classical and Operant ConditioningHave you ever wondered how you will control a class of students? There are various techniques in how teachers can “manipulate” students to act in a manner that is appropriate and conducive for learning. Behaviorism tells us that learning is observed through changes in behavior. When students respond to situations in their environment, this is when we can see the occurrence of learning unlike cognitivists that suggests learning is also an unobservable change that occurs within the brain. The use of behaviorism is prominent in a teacher’s classroom management plan as this is where the teacher wants to see an observable change in behavior.Read Chapter 5 of our text to gain an understanding of Pavlov’s classical and Skinner’s operant conditioning.· First, describe the difference between classical and operant conditioning. Reflect on your own educational experience. Describe examples of classical and operant conditioning that you have experienced. Also, describe outcomes of each.· Then, compare positive and negative reinforcement strategies. How is negative reinforcement different than punishment? Refer to the examples you shared in your first paragraph: explain whether they were instances of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, or punishment. Provide your reasoning and explain how they impacted your learning.Reciprocal TeachingAs stated in Chapter 6 of our text, reciprocal teaching is an instructional approach for teaching students cognitive strategies to improve reading comprehension. This model of teaching is based heavily on the social learning theories of Lev Vygotsky and Albert Bandura who emphasize the importance of teacher-student interactions in the learning process. One of the Common Core English Language Arts College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading states the following:“Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.”For this discussion:a. Read the Closing in on close reading (Links to an external site.) article about this idea of “close reading” as part of the CCSS initiative.b. Watch the video Watch & learn: text comprehension (Links to an external site.) and discuss how the students assume responsibility for helping one another learn.c. Finally, explain how reciprocal teaching helps students comprehend what they read more deeply and how it also reflects this idea of “close reading” as described by the Common Core Standard. Which educational psychology theory or theories does reciprocal teaching employ?MemoryWhy is it you can recall a favorite childhood memory, but might not be able to remember what you did the day before? Reflect on the reasons why you are able to remember some things and not others by answering the following questions. Be sure to use Chapter 7 of our text to provide evidence and support for your response.1. Compare and contrast sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory using school-based examples.2. What works best for you when required to commit facts to memory for both the short-term and long-term?3. Knowing how memory works, how will this impact your instruction? How will you help students to retain and retrieve the information they need to know? Provide a specific strategy that you would utilize in your classroom to ensure that the content makes a lasting impression and is secured in long-term memory.MotivationWatch a movie about teaching, such as “Freedom Writers”, “Dead Poet’s Society”, “Lean on Me”, or “Stand and Deliver”. The following are clips for each movie to help you decide which movie you would like to watch:· Freedom Writers.(Links to an external site.)· Dead Poet’s Society (Links to an external site.).· Lean On Me (Links to an external site.).· Stand And Deliver (Links to an external site.).Then answer the following questions:1. Summarize the movie you selected to watch and discuss ways in which the teacher motivated his/her students. Using Chapter 8 of our text, describe the motivational theory employed for each of the strategies you listed.2. How did satisfying Maslow’s hierarchy of needs impact student learning in your selected movie?3. How did the teacher in your selected movie display characteristics of a humanistic teacher? Be specific by providing examples and connecting your response to the text.4. Describe the ideal learning environment for you and explain how it will increase your motivation and ability to learn. What obstacles would hinder the creation of your ideal learning environment?Final Assignment TopicFor your final assignment, you will complete a literature review, which requires you to select a topic relevant to educational psychology.Here are some suggested topics:a. The teacher’s role in the diagnosis, treatment, and education of the child with attention deficit hyperactive disorder.b. Critical thinking and its importance in education in making students better thinkers and developing metacognitive skills.c. Strategies for adapting the classroom to meet the needs of the exceptional student (ex. Autistic, gifted, English Language Learner, etc.)d. The current level of violent acts committed in schools and efforts to stop them.e. The role of genetics and environment in determining intelligence.f. The effectiveness of various initiatives to improve education such as the “Common Core State Standards.”g. The “Gender Gap” in Education.h. The impact of affective issues on student learning.i. Strategies for how and why teachers can incorporate affective activities into their daily instruction.In your response, state the topic of your literature review by either selecting one from the above list, or create your own topic from which your instructor will either approve or help you refine it for the purpose of the final assignment. Then turn this topic into a question that will be the driving force behind your research. Your instructor will respond to your thread giving final approval for your topic.Corporal Punishment DebateEffective teachers tend to use a variety of classroom management strategies to meet the developmental and learning needs of their students. Some states are still using corporal punishment as a form of behavior management. Read the USA Today report, Texas school district to begin paddling as punishment (Links to an external site.) and read, Corporal Punishment Continues in U.S. Schools, Despite Its Ineffectiveness (Links to an external site.) and respond to the following questions:1. Do you feel corporal punishment is an appropriate means of behavior management in schools? Why or why not?2. How does corporal punishment impact a child’s psychological development? Do the ends justify the means?3. How does corporal punishment align with any of the management models presented in our text? Be sure to provide reasoning for your response.Select one of the following management models that you would choose instead of corporal punishment. Describe the principal characteristics of your selected classroom model and why you think this model works well. List specific instructional strategies related to your selected management model· Roger’s Humanistic Model· Marland’s Caring Model· Kounin’s Teacher With-it-ness· Skinner’s Behavior Modification· Canter’s Assertive DisciplineAssessment ShiftsAs future educators, it is important that the assessments you create for your classroom are valid and reliable and come in various forms, both formative and summative. In the age of assessment and accountability, high stakes testing has been the driving force behind today’s educational culture, but it has caused many to question if high stakes testing accurately measures student achievement. Now with the implementation of the Common Core State Standards, two different consortia (PARCC and SmarterBalanced) are working to develop assessments which are aligned to these new standards and embrace the focus of the CCSS to deepen student thinking. Review the following two videos to gain a better understanding of these assessment shifts that will be implemented during 2014-2015 school year:· How the common core is changing assessment (Links to an external site.)· Teacher Interviews – Six Common Core Shifts Professional Development (Links to an external site.)After reviewing the two videos, answer the following questions:1. Does testing matter? Are assessment and measurement a valid tool for teaching and learning? Explain and provide your reasoning.2. How are the Common Core State Standards assessment shifts different from high stakes testing? How are they similar? Do you think these assessments will be able to better evaluate student needs? Why or why not?3. How important is formative assessment (ongoing) in the new era of Common Core State Standards assessments (see Frequently asked questions (Links to an external site.) about the Common Core Standards) to gain a greater understanding of this new initiative)? Why is the use of formative assessment an important method in diagnosing your students’ needs in order to create effective instruction?Required TextLeFrançois, G. R. (2018). Psychology for teaching (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu· This text is a Constellation course digital materials (CDM) title.Required ResourcesArticlesAlvarado, B. (2017, July 21). Texas school district to begin paddling as punishment (Links to an external site.). USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/07/21/school-paddling/499177001/Boyles, N. (2013). Closing in on close reading. Educational leadership, 70(4). 36-41. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/dec12/vol70/num04/Closing-in-on-Close-Reading.aspxCouncil of Chief State School Officers. (2011, April). Intasc model core teaching standards: A resource for state dialogue. (Links to an external site.) Retrieved from http://www.ccsso.org/documents/2011/intasc_model_core_teaching_standards_2011.pdfKids Together, Inc. (n.d.). What is inclusion? Retrieved from http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion.htmLayton, J. (2017, Jan 18). Corporal punishment continues in U.S. schools, despite its ineffectiveness (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://health.howstuffworks.com/mental-health/human-nature/behavior/corporal-punishment-continues-us-schools-its-ineffectiveness.htmThompkins, R. & Deloney, P. (1995). Inclusion: The pros and cons (Links to an external site.). Issues..about Change, 4(3). Retrieved from http://www.sedl.org/change/issues/issues43.htmlMultimediaEducation Elements. (2012). The fundamentals of blended learning (Links to an external site.) [Video file] Retrieved from http://vimeopro.com/edelements/education-elements/video/29536658EngageNY (2018, March 18). Teacher interviews – Six Common Core shifts professional development (Links to an external site.) [Video]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/HUhaNUwriOQKhan, S. [edutopia]. (2012, December 18th). Salman Khan describes future classrooms with blended learning. (Links to an external site.) [Video file].Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vwyOv7PiC40&feature=youtu.beWeAreTeachers. (2012, November 14th). How the common core is changing assessment. (Links to an external site.) [Video file].Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N6kdyqeoiSIwetalearningmedia. (2008, May 19th). Watch & learn: text comprehension (Links to an external site.) [Video file].Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbnwBVrJVdYWebsitesCenter for Parent Information and Resources. (n.d.). School inclusion. (Links to an external site.) Retrieved from http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/inclusionFree IQ Test (Links to an external site.). (Links to an external site.) (n.d.). Retrieved from https://iqtestprep.com/long-iq-test/Lyons, K. (2010). How to write a literature review. Retrieved from http://library.concordia.ca/help/howto/litreview.phpMultiple Intelligences for Adult Literacy and Education. (n.d.). Multiple intelligences — Assessment (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.literacynet.org/mi/assessment/findyourstrengths.htmlO’Neill, J., Levant, R., Watts, R., Smiler, A., Addis, M., & Wester, S. (n.d.). Literature review guidelines.American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/men/literature-review-guidelines.aspxThe Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. (2012). Learn how to write a review of literature. Retrieved from http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/ReviewofLiterature.htmlUniversity of California Santa Cruz. (n.d.). Write a literature review. Retrieved from http://guides.library.ucsc.edu/write-a-literature-reviewRecommended ResourcesTextWoolfolk, A. (2013). Educational psychology (12th ed.). Boston, MA: PearsonWebsitesCommon Core State Standards Initiative. (2012). Frequently asked questions (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/resources/frequently-asked-questionsJing. (Links to an external site.) (http://www.techsmith.com/jing.html)Prezi. (Links to an external site.) (http://www.prezi.com)Voicethread. (Links to an external site.) (http://www.voicethread.com)
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